Report – INTREC Block 2
Workshop on Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods
for Social Determinant of Health
Hotel Santika Premier Jogjakarta, April 1st– 11th, 2014
Social Determinant of Health (SDH) has been recognised as an essential factor influencing health inequalities within country and between countries. Therefore, INDEPTH WHO-SAGE in collaboration with UGM held a workshop on Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in order to encourage young researchers to conduct SDH research, which in terms of numbers, is currently limited. The result of these researches will provide evidence for health policy making to eliminate disparities and improve health status in the community.
This workshop was held in two weeks which was delivered by 4SDH experts: Heribert Ramroth and Nicholas Henschke from Heidelberg University, Joke Haafkens from Amsterdam University, and Kjerstin Dahlblom from Umea University. Heribert and Nicholas delivered Quantitative Methods at the first week, while at the second week, Kjerstinand Haafkens gave Qualitative methods. It was attended by 16 enthusiastic young researchers from India, Vietnam, PNG, and Indonesia, and observed by Anna Mirny from Harvard Population Studies who was the coordinator for the overall training of INTREC.
The workshop was hosted by the Center for Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, led by Prof. Laksono Trisnantoro. The organizer was Sealvy Kristianingsih and Siwi Padmawati.
Quantitative Research Methods
The workshop started by the introduction of all participants, about their background and research experiences. Most of them are currently involved in SDH related research in their country. Herbert and Nicholas discussed some important topics on quantitative research comprehensively during the first week i.e. introduction of SDH, study design, sampling, basic statistics, descriptive analysis, correlation, regression, longitudinal analysis, logistic regression, multilevel modelsand finally presentation and interpretation of results. The lectures were then followed by group exercises.
In group exercise, participants were able to identify research questions, and methods and measurement tools from 2 papers given. After understanding the basic of study design, participants then were assigned to develop their own research question including study design and measurement variables, whichwere presented in the classin order to obtain feedback from others. Both instructors assisted actively through intensive discussion with each participant. These young researchers discussed seriously their research topics such as TB, diabetes mellitus, obesity, tobacco regulation, mental health, maternal and child health, teenage pregnancy, school sanitation, etc. Participants also had opportunities to practice in interpreting quantitative findings from some published papers provided by lecturers.
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods were delivered intensively by Kjerstin and Haafkensat the second week of workshop through lectures, discussions and field visit. The participants learnt about qualitative research design, sampling, research questions, ethical considerations, trust worthiness, collecting data through observations, interviews, focus group discussion, and finally analysis and writing up the study report. They were expected to be able to differentiate between quantitative and qualitative methods, and eventually be able to choose the appropriate method that fit to their research. Only few participants had previous experience in conducting qualitative research. Therefore, in order to improve their skills, participants were actively involved in group exercise through role play for interviews and focus group discussions in varied situations. As researchers, having these skills are really important.
Participants had great opportunity to make short observations in a primary health centre “Gondokusuman 2” as well as in the kampong (neighbourhood) located nearby the hotel. One group observed services provided by PHC such as dental clinic, psychological consultation, laboratory examinations, doctor’s room, waiting room, maternal and child health clinic, and pharmacy. They also had a chance to interview laboratory technicians, midwives, psychologist and patients, to add information for their observations. Mean while, other groups also made interesting community observations particularly on smoking, water and sanitation, etc. These two hour observations were then presented in the class to get feedback from others. After data collection, finally in groups, they also practiced in analysing those qualitative data as well as in presenting findings to journal paper.
From the evaluation at the last day, participants provided some suggestions such as more hours are needed for practice particularly in analysis both for quantitative and qualitative data. Overall, participants’ feedback showed that this SDH research methodology workshop was successful and was beneficial for them to improve their knowledge and skills particularly in developing SDH research.
Annex 1. List of Participants
|1.||Bharat Sudam Chaudhari||Vadu||India|
|4.||Rebecca Emori||PIH||Papua New Guinea|
|5.||Nguyen Thi Minh Thoa||Dodalab||Vietnam|
|6.||Nguyen Thai Quynh Chi||Chililab HDSS/ HSPH||Vietnam|
|7.||Ifta Choiriyyah||Purworejo/ UGM||Indonesia|
|8.||Citra Indriani||Purworejo/ UGM||Indonesia|
|11.||Ktut Rentyasti Palupi||UGM||Indonesia|
|13.||Likke Prawidya Putri||UGM||Indonesia|
|14.||Puti Aulia Rahma||UGM||Indonesia|